A flat foot is the most common foot deformity known. This condition can occur in one or both of your feet. Flat feet is known as pes planus , and simply refers to a loss of the arch on the bottom of the foot. If persistent throbbing pain is present in the arch region, especially during activity, you may be feeling the signs of a weakening arch. The mainstream treatment for flat feet or weak arches is orthotics. Orthotics is artificial arch supports inserted into footwear. These inserts can either be over the counter or made from a custom mold or measurement of your foot. Heel-cord contracture can cause heel valgus, altered tarsal motion, lateral column shortening, and a painful flat foot. The child is usually in the second decade of life and presents with vague activity-related foot pain. The foot cannot be dorsiflexed beyond neutral with the knee extended. Radiographs often show excessive plantar-flexion of the talus. Treatment involves lengthening of the contracture of the triceps surae and in many cases lateral column lengthening. Long-term wear and tear of the feet, brought on by walking, running and jumping, can cause a weakened posterior tibialis tendon. As this tendon weakens, it loses its ability to support the foot arch, and allows the foot to flatten. Surgery for pes plano valgus in children and adolescents is usually reserved for patients that are failing to obtain relief of symptoms, despite following a non-surgical treatment program. These patients usually have significant abnormalities of foot alignment. Other factors, such as the severity of family history of the problem, or severity of causative factors such as a tight calf muscle may also play a role in deciding when surgery should be considered. Surgery is rarely recommended for children under age 5, because it may take that long in some cases for an arch to develop. If you or a family member with fallen arches is experiencing achy or tired feet after standing for a long period of time or after rigorous activity like running or playing sports, treatments are available that can help alleviate pain. Because foot problems can alter the alignment of ankles, knees and hips, pain can develop in other areas as well. A qualified McKinney podiatrist from Premier Foot & Ankle can diagnosis the condition with a simple examination and X-ray. Treatment Options Of cause all of foot pain is caused by flatfoot, and flatfoot cause only foot pain, but I think flatfott is a risk factor of foot pain in adult. Functional orthoses are given after the biomechanical assessment and casting of the feet. They are built by numerous processes to straighten up the structure of the foot in its most functionally effective position. The orthotic, moulded from the cast, is designed to strengthen the foot and also to stop it from moving into an unbalanced position whilst walking or running. Lastly, you might want to think about whether your feet are implicated in causing your knee pain. Again over-pronation will not only stretch your plantar fascia in your foot, but also alter certain angles and alignment for your patella, causing CMP. Good luck to all the avid runners out there!